The OrthographicSystem interface

The type HebrewOrthography implements the OrthographicSystem interface (from the Orthography package) for Biblical Hebrew texts written with the Hebrew range of Unicode. (For more information about the Julia Orthography package, see its documentation).

Create a HebrewOrthography object and use it to get metadata about the orthography, to validate strings, and to tokenize strings.

using BiblicalHebrew, Orthography
ortho = HebrewOrthography()
Limitations in Documenter's Unicode display

Many code points in the Hebrew range of Unicode don't display at all in the font used by Julia's Documenter package. These include all the vowel pointing (niqqud), and many of the punctuation and accent marks. All the code examples in this documentation produce output with fully pointed and accented Hebrew. Julia's Markdown parser produces normalized content that Documenter can display, so while it may seem odd to apply Markdown.parse to a plain string with no markdown content, several examples here do that to make the display of the Hebrew content clearer.

Valid characters

All 84 defined codepoints in the Unicode Hebrew range plus four white-space characters (space, \n, \r and \n) are valid in this orthography.

88-element Vector{Char}:
 '\t': ASCII/Unicode U+0009 (category Cc: Other, control)
 '\n': ASCII/Unicode U+000A (category Cc: Other, control)
 '\r': ASCII/Unicode U+000D (category Cc: Other, control)
 ' ': ASCII/Unicode U+0020 (category Zs: Separator, space)
 '֑': Unicode U+0591 (category Mn: Mark, nonspacing)
 '֒': Unicode U+0592 (category Mn: Mark, nonspacing)
 '֓': Unicode U+0593 (category Mn: Mark, nonspacing)
 '֔': Unicode U+0594 (category Mn: Mark, nonspacing)
 '֕': Unicode U+0595 (category Mn: Mark, nonspacing)
 '֖': Unicode U+0596 (category Mn: Mark, nonspacing)
 'פ': Unicode U+05E4 (category Lo: Letter, other)
 'ץ': Unicode U+05E5 (category Lo: Letter, other)
 'צ': Unicode U+05E6 (category Lo: Letter, other)
 'ק': Unicode U+05E7 (category Lo: Letter, other)
 'ר': Unicode U+05E8 (category Lo: Letter, other)
 'ש': Unicode U+05E9 (category Lo: Letter, other)
 'ת': Unicode U+05EA (category Lo: Letter, other)
 '׳': Unicode U+05F3 (category Po: Punctuation, other)
 '״': Unicode U+05F4 (category Po: Punctuation, other)

Test whether a string is valid in this orthography:

validstring("בֵּֽין־פָּארָ֧ן", ortho)
validstring("Hi, בֵּֽין־פָּארָ֧ן", ortho)


The orthography can identify three categories of token:

3-element Vector{DataType}:

Tokenization associates a string value with a token category. Since punctuation like maqaf doesn't display properly in this documentation, we'll use the package's maqaf_join function to create a construct chain, then tokenize the resulting string.

using Markdown
s1 = "בֵּֽין"
Markdown.parse("> s1 = " * s1)

s1 = בֵּֽין

s2 = "פָּארָ֧ן"
Markdown.parse("> s2 = " * s2)

s2 = פָּארָ֧ן

construct = BiblicalHebrew.maqaf_join([s1,s2])
Markdown.parse("> Value of `construct` is " * construct)

Value of construct is בֵּֽין־פָּארָ֧ן

tokens = tokenize(construct, ortho)
join(map(t -> string("> - ", t.text, " ", typeof(t.tokencategory)), tokens),"\n") |> Markdown.parse
  • בֵּֽין Orthography.LexicalToken

  • ־ Orthography.PunctuationToken

  • פָּארָ֧ן Orthography.LexicalToken

Numeric tokens are followed by gershe or gershayim. To compose a string for the numeric value 1, the following example passes a named character constant as a parameter to the package's gershe function to append a gershe to it.

aleph = string(BiblicalHebrew.aleph_ch)
one = BiblicalHebrew.gershe(aleph)


tokenize(one, ortho)
1-element Vector{Orthography.OrthographicToken}:
 Orthography.OrthographicToken("א", Orthography.NumericToken())